Well there are maximum sizes for images so I would just go with them. The problem is I cannot find where they are documented!
I know I've seen an error message when trying to upload images that were too big, but apparently you are not told before trying to upload too big an image, and I can't find the information in any question on meta.
I think you are only told after uploading a large image that it was too large and what the maximum dimentions and file size are. On my slow crappy Romanian beach WIFI it's taking way too long to upload a file to find out the limits though so I can't tell you what they are!
But my advice is if the system accepts your image then Stack Exchange has already decided it's not too big. (More and more people are getting either bigger screens or higher definition screens so image sizes will only increase.)